Zamkatimu

Maso otopa kapena asthenopia

monga ophthalmologists amachitcha chikhalidwe ichi, izo zimaonekera mu mawonekedwe a subjective zizindikiro za kutopa maso. Pankhaniyi, wodwalayo angadandaule za:

  • kuchepa kwa maso (kumverera kwa "chophimba" kapena "chifunga" pamaso pa maso);
  • kuwoneka kwa kusamveka bwino kapena kusinthasintha kwa zinthu zomwe zikufunsidwa;
  • kumva “mchenga” m’maso;
  • kufiira kwa maso;
  • photophobia kapena vuto la kusintha kwamdima;
  • zovuta kapena zosatheka kuyang'ana mwachangu mukasintha kuyang'ana kwanu kuchokera patali kupita ku chinthu chakutali komanso mosemphanitsa;
  • mutu;

Chizindikiro chachikulu cha matenda a asthenopia ndi kuwonjezeka kwa madandaulo omwe tatchulidwa pamwambawa panthawi yovuta kwambiri yowonekera (kugwira ntchito pa kompyuta, kugwira ntchito ndi zikalata, kuwerenga kapena zojambulajambula). Pankhaniyi, zizindikiro zonse zogwirizana zimatha kuchepa kapena kutha kwathunthu panthawi yopuma.

Asthenopia

Onse akuluakulu ndi ana amatha kutenga kachilomboka. Komanso, vutoli nthawi zambiri limakhudza ana azaka zapakati ndi sekondale, komanso ophunzira. Ndiko kuti, magulu onse a anthu omwe akuchita ntchito iliyonse yokhudzana ndi kupsinjika kwamawonekedwe kwa nthawi yayitali.

Chifukwa chake zomwe zimayambitsa komanso zomwe zingayambitse kukula kwa asthenopia ndi:

  • kuwerenga kapena ntchito iliyonse yowoneka mopepuka;
  • kugwira ntchito pa kompyuta kapena kuonera TV kwa nthawi yaitali;
  • nthawi yayitali yoyendetsa galimoto, makamaka madzulo ndi usiku;
  • ntchito yokhudzana ndi kupsinjika kosalekeza, mwachitsanzo, kugwira ntchito ndi zing'onozing'ono (zokongoletsera, ntchito za jeweler ndi mafakitale ena ofanana);
  • kuwongolera kolakwika kwa ametropia (myopia, kuona patali kapena astigmatism);
  • matenda ambiri, makamaka endocrine;
  • kuledzera;

Mitundu ya asthenopia:

  • Minofu asthenopia. Zokhudzana ndi kufooka kwa kulumikizana mwachitsanzo, kuyang'ana kwamphamvu kwa maso onse pa chinthu chokhazikika. Izi zingakhale zovuta ngati minofu ya maso ili yofooka.)
  • Asthenopia yokhazikika. Accommodation ndi zokhudza thupi ndondomeko kusintha refractive mphamvu ya diso pa zooneka amaona zinthu zili pa mtunda wosiyana kwa izo. Zida zogwiritsira ntchito diso zimaphatikizapo: ulusi wosalala wa minofu ya ciliary, ulusi wa zonular ligament, choroid ndi mandala. Kusokonekera kulikonse pakugwira ntchito kwa nyumbazi kumatha kupangitsa kuchepa kwa malo ogona ndikuyambitsa madandaulo ena a asthenopic.
  • Wosakaniza asthenopia kumachitika ndi ophatikizana matenda a convergence ndi malawi.
  • Asthenopia yamanjenje imatha kulumikizidwa ndi kupsinjika kapena kusokonezeka kwamaganizidwe osiyanasiyana. 
  • Symptomatic asthenopia imapezeka ndi ma pathologies osiyanasiyana a diso ndi ziwalo zapafupi ndipo imatha pomwe matenda omwe amayambitsawo achiritsidwa (1).

Minofu asthenopia nthawi zambiri imachitika ndi myopia yosakonzedwa, kuwona patali, presbyopia (kuwonera kutali kokhudzana ndi zaka) kapena astigmatism.

Madandaulo a asthenopic amathanso kuchitika ndi magalasi osankhidwa molakwika kapena magalasi olumikizirana. Kapena n'zotheka kuti myopia kapena presbyopia yapita patsogolo, ndipo wodwalayo akupitiriza kugwiritsa ntchito magalasi akale omwe salinso oyenera kwa iye ponena za diopta.

Minofu asthenopia imathanso kuchitika motsutsana ndi maziko a matenda omwe amakhudza minofu ya rectus ocular, mwachitsanzo, matenda a endocrine (thyrotoxicosis), myasthenia gravis kapena myositis.

Ndi myopia, ntchito patali kwambiri kumachitika ndi kuchuluka malawi, amene ikuchitika mothandizidwa ndi mkati rectus minofu. Ndi strabismus, asthenopia imachitika chifukwa cha kutopa chifukwa chofuna kuthana ndi kupatuka kwa maso.

Zimayambitsa asthenopia yokhazikika - spasm of malawi, kuwongolera kosakwanira kwa kuyang'ana patali ndi astigmatism, matenda am'maso komanso ambiri omwe amatsogolera ku kufooka kwa minofu ya ciliary, mwachitsanzo, matenda otupa ndi osokonekera a diso. Pogwira ntchito pafupi ndi malo oyandikana nawo, kupsinjika kwa malo kumafunika, komwe kumachitika mothandizidwa ndi minofu ya ciliary.

Kuzindikira kwa asthenopia:

  • Kutsimikiza kwa kuwona bwino komanso popanda kuwongolera
  • Skiascopy kwa ophunzira ochepa komanso otambalala (nthawi zambiri mwa ana).
  • Refractometry yokhala ndi wophunzira wopapatiza komanso wamkulu.
  • Kutsimikiza kwa mbali ya strabismus pogwiritsa ntchito njira ya Hirschberg ndi synoptophore;
  • Kutsimikiza kwa chikhalidwe cha masomphenya pogwiritsa ntchito mayeso anayi;
  • Kuyeza malo ogona - chinsalu chowoneka bwino chimayikidwa kutsogolo kwa diso limodzi ndipo winayo akufunsidwa kuti awerenge malembawo pamtunda wa 33 cm. Kenako magalasi oyipa okhala ndi mphamvu zowonjezera amayikidwa patsogolo pake ndikuloledwa "kuzolowera" kwakanthawi. Magalasi amphamvu kwambiri, omwe malembawo amatha kuwerengedwabe, amatengedwa ngati malo ogona. Pazaka 20-30 ndizofanana ndi 10 diopters, pambuyo pa zaka 40 zimachepa.
  • Kutsimikiza kwa nkhokwe zophatikizira kumachitika pogwiritsa ntchito synoptophore. Pankhaniyi, magawo awiri a chithunzicho amalumikizidwa palimodzi, kenako amayamba kulekanitsa theka la zojambulazo ndikuzindikira momwe diso limayambira kuwona ngati 2 zosiyana. Nthawi zambiri, nkhokwe zabwino (zosinthika) ndi madigiri 15-25, ndipo nkhokwe zoyipa (zosiyana) ndi madigiri 3-5. Ndi asthenopia amachepetsedwa. Itha kudziwitsidwanso pogwiritsa ntchito magalasi a prismatic.

Chithandizo cha asthenopia.

Chithandizo cha asthenopia, monga lamulo, ndi nthawi yayitali ndipo makamaka zimadalira chikhumbo cha wodwalayo komanso momwe akumvera kuti achire. Njira yayikulu imasankhidwa bwino kukonza ametropia ndi magalasi kapena magalasi. Chithandizo cha chifukwa cha asthenopia, kuphatikizapo extraocular pathology, ndizovomerezeka. Kuti muchepetse kukhazikika kwa malo ogona ndikupumula minofu ya ciliary, ma mydriatics osakhalitsa amayikidwa, dontho limodzi tsiku lililonse kapena tsiku lililonse usiku kwa mwezi umodzi.

Njira zothandizira zida zamagetsi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pophunzitsa zosungirako zokhala ndi malo abwino komanso kulumikizana. Izi zimatheka pogwiritsa ntchito magalasi amphamvu zosiyanasiyana, ma prism ndi zoyeserera zapadera (2).

Zida zamakompyuta ndi njira zamakompyuta zochizira amblyopia:

  • Synoptophore imathandiza kuphunzitsa ndi kupanga fusional reserves (kutha kuphatikiza zithunzi zowoneka kuchokera m'maso onse kukhala chithunzi chimodzi).
  • Kukondoweza kwa laser kumatsitsimutsa minofu ya ciliary. 
  • Wophunzitsa accomodo amakhudza malo ogona akamayang'ana pafupi ndi kutali, komanso angagwiritsidwe ntchito kunyumba. 
  • Mapulogalamu apakompyuta osiyanasiyana. Kuti muchepetse kutopa kwamaso ndikuletsa kukula kwa matenda apakompyuta - EyeDefender, Maso otetezeka, RELAX. Ngati pali myopia, hypermetropia kapena strabismus, ndiye EYE, Strabismus, Blade, Flower, Crosses, Contour, etc. (3).

Kuchiza kwa hardware kumapereka zotsatira zabwino makamaka mwa ana.

Kupewa kukula kwa asthenopia:

  • Kuwongolera koyenera komanso kwanthawi yake kwa zolakwika za refractive (myopia, kuona kutali, astigmatism).
  • Kutsata ndi ntchito ndi kupuma boma ponena za maso. Pambuyo pa ola lililonse la kupsinjika kwa diso, muyenera kupuma. Panthawiyi, mukhoza kuchita masewera olimbitsa thupi.
  • Kuunikira kokwanira kwapafupi ndi komwe kumagwirira ntchito.
  • Kugwiritsa ntchito magalasi apadera a perforated kumachepetsa nkhawa ya malo ogona.
  • Kutenga mavitamini kapena zakudya zowonjezera m'maso ndi zakudya zoyenera, zopatsa thanzi nthawi zonse.
  • Masewera ndi masewera olimbitsa thupi.

Kudziwikiratu kwa asthenopia ndi chithandizo chanthawi yake komanso kutsatira malamulo onse oletsa ndikwabwino.

 

1. "Binocular function in ametropia" Shapovalov SL, Milyavsky TI, Ignatieva SA, Kornyushina TA St. Petersburg 2014

2. "Kuchiza zovuta za matenda a accommodative mu anapeza myopia" Zharov VV, Egorov AV, Konkova LV, Moscow 2008.

3. "Ntchito yothandizira ya concomitant strabismus" Goncharova SA, Panteleev GV, Moscow 2004.

Siyani Mumakonda